Dvaita Philosophy of Madhvacharya
By Sujay Adukia
Madhva ( A.D 1239-1319) belonged to the Vaisnava tradition and devouted himself to combating Sankara’s impersonal philosophy.Madhvacharya’s Purnaprajna bhasya establishes a type of Vedanta philosophy called shuddha-dvaita(pure dualism).In histeachings Madhva describes three entities- the supreme lord,the jiva, and the material world.
Even more emphatically than Ramanuja ,Madhva maintained the God and the jivas are eternally distinct.
Whereas Shankara had described the Lord as the material cause of the cosmos,Madhva accepted the direct meaning of the smriti Shastras and held that the lord is transcendental to the material world,which is the product of his inferior energy(apara prakriti).
In other words God is distinct from His material creation. At the same time the jivas are also distinct from matter, for they are the superior, spiritual energy of the lord.Madhva maintained that although the jivas are superior to matter,they are distinct fvrom the lord and are His servitors.Where as the Lord is independent,the jivas are completely dependent on him.
Madhva taught that the Lord creates,maintains and annihilates the cosmos, and at the same time ,in his original eternal form as Bhagavan Krishna the Lord remains superior to manifest and unmanifest matter.
In addition Madhva explained that each person molds his own Karma, and that through bhakti one can eliminate all his Karma and return to his original position of serving Lord in the eternalspiritual world.
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